The Chicago & Alton Railroad ranted him space in one of their shops, and he with a friend, Mr. Angell, conducted their experiments, and finally produced a finished car. At that time Mr. Pullman's means were very limited, and he and Mr. Angell slept in a little room at one end of the space given them. Objection was made to the height of his car, and his response was that the day of coaches would have to come up to his standard of height, and he remarked: "You will observe that that is just what they have done". He said he well remembered the first night's run of his car when he himself had taken the first fifty cents for a berth overnight from Chicago to Alton. Mr. Angell, at the time of which I am writing, was the purchasing agent of the Pullman Co., and I presume held that position for life.

Directly across the aisle from my berth sat an elderly man to whom Mr. Pullman introduced me; he was Mr. Billings, the Chicago street car magnate, a very conservative man of the old type. Mr. Pullman joked about his old cars, and said: "Billings, you ought to scrap those old cars and let me build you a new set for all of your lines", at which Mr. Billings smiled, and as Pullman strolled back to his drawing-room, Mr. Billings looked at me, and remarked: "George was always a great man for gold leaf and varnish". We did a large business that the Company for some years afterward.

In 1890 our Spanish Cedar Cigar Box Lumber business was much affected by the advent of a shaving machine patented by Edward F. Smith and operated by the firm of Fredericks & Smith. Their product was sold so much below the price at which we were able to make our Sawed product that a number of our good customers turned to the knife-cut lumber; however, the competition was short-lived, for in about two years the firm of Fredericks & Smith failed. During their liquidation by Receiver, Mr. Fredericks called upon me at my office and announced that they were about to form a corporation to take over and operate the Plant, and asked me to subscribe to their stock. I promptly replied that I would not consider such a proposition, and that the only one I would consider would be a proposition in which I would control the patents and the plant. He thought that such a plan might be worked out, and in a few days Mr. Smith called upon me.

It was finally arranged that we take over and operate the plant on a royalty basis, paying a royalty on each thousand feet produced. We arranged to employ Fredericks & Smith and also

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